- Clinical manifestations/symptoms
- Preventive Measures
Novel beta coronavirus of the same subgenus as SARS-COV(Severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus) named SARS-COV-2.Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) has rapidly disseminated worldwide hence declared by World Health Organization as Pandemic
VIROLOGY: Class of virus
An enveloped virus with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA(Ribonucleic acid) genome.
PATHOGENESIS: How the disease starts
Coronavirus S protein has been reported as a significant determinant of virus entry into host cells. The envelope spike glycoprotein binds to its cellular receptor, ACE 2() for SARS-COV. The entry of SARS-COV into the cell was initially identified to be accomplished by direct membrane fusion between the virus and plasma membrane. It is found that a critical proteolytic cleavage event occurred at SARS-COV S-protein at position S2 mediated the membrane fusion and viral infectivity.
After the virus enters the cell, the viral RNA genome is released into the cytoplasm and translated into two polyproteins and structural proteins, after which the viral genome begins to replicate. The newly formed envelope glycoproteins are inserted into the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi and the nucleocapsid is formed by the combination of genome RNA and nucleocapsid protein.
Antigen Presentation In Corona Virus Infection
While the virus enters the cells its antigen will be presented to the antigen presentation cells (APC) which are a central part of the body’s anti-viral immunity. Antigenic peptides are presented by major histocompatibility complex(MHC), or human leukocyte antigen(HLA) in humans and then recognized by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLS). For SARS-COV and MERS-COV the presentation is mainly dependent on MHC-1 molecules, but MHC-II also contributes to its presentation.
Humoral and Cellular Immunity
Antigen presentation subsequently stimulates the body’s humoral and cellular Immunity which are mediated by virus-specific B and T cells similar to acute viral infection the antibody profile against the SARS-COV virus has a typical pattern of IgM and IgG(immunoglobulin M & G) production. IgM disappears over 12weeks, IgG plays a protective role.
Comparing to humoral responses, there are more researches on the cellular Immunity of coronavirus. The latest report shows the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood of SARS-COV-2 infected patients significantly is reduced were as evidenced by high proportions of HLA-DR(CD4 3.47%) and CD38(CD8 39.4%) double positive. Even if there is no antigen, CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells can persist for four years in the part of SARS-COV recovered individuals and can perform T cell proliferation, DTH response and production of IFN-8(inferno-8), six years after SARS-COV infection specific T cell memory responses to the SARS-COV peptide library could still be identified in 14 of 23 recovered SARS patients.
Cytokine storm in COVID-19
The report in Lancet shows ARDS( Acute respiratory distress syndrome) is the main cause of death of COVID-19 . of the 41 SARS-COV-2 infected patients admitted in the early stages of the outbreak, six died from ARDS.
ARDS is the common immuno-pathophysiological event for SARS-COV-2, SARS-COV and MERS-COV Infection.
One of the main mechanism of ARDS is the cytokine storm, the deadly uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response resulting from the release of a large amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines(INF-alpha, INF-gamma, IL-B, IL-6, IL-12, IL-18, IL-33, TNF-alpha, TGF-B, etc),(IL(interleukin), TNF(Tumor necrotic factor) and Chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, etc.)
The cytokine storm will trigger a violent attack by the immune system to the body, cause ARDS and multiple organ failure and finally lead to death in severe cases of SARS-COV-2 infection, just like what occurs in SARS-COV and MERS-COV Infection
CLINICAL MANIFESTATION/ SYMPTOMS
Clinical manifestations range from mild respiratory symptoms to severe pneumonia and a fatality rate around 2% person to person transmission is occurring both in the community and health care settings.
Clinical symptoms of COVID-19 are highly atypical, including;
Respiratory symptoms, like ARDS
Loss of taste
Diagnosis of COVID-19
Clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 is mainly based on
3.some auxiliary examinations such as :
4.Nucleic acid detection
6.Immune identification technology (point of care testing (POCT)) of IgM & IgG
7.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)
Nucleic Acid Detection Technology
The two commonly used nucleic acid detection technologies for SARS-COV -2 are real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and high. Throughput sequencing. The authoritative identification method for SARS- COV -2 is virus blood culture and high- throughput sequencing of the whole genome, However, the later is limitedly used due to high cost.
TREATMENT OF COVID-19
Virally targeted inhibitors like Remdesivir and adenosine analogs that can target the RNA- dependent RNA polymerase and block viral RNA synthesis has been a promising antiviral drug against a wide array of RNA viruses (including SARS & MERS-COV) Infection in culture cells
Remdesivir and Chloroquine have been demonstrated to inhibit SARS-COV-2 effectively in vitro. Hence other nucleoside analogs such as Favipiravir, Ribavirin, and Galidesivir, may be potentially clinically applicable against SARS-COV-2. Other monoclonal antibodies neutralizing SARS-COV, such as M396 CR 3014, could be an alternative for the treatment of SARS-COV-2
Effective SARS-COV-2 vaccines are essential for reducing disease severity, viral shedding and transmission thus helping to control coronavirus outbreak. The WHO is working with the Chinese scientists as well as other scientists around the world to launch more than 80 clinical trials on a potential treatment for SARS-COV-2. Traditional Chinese medicine seems to have some effects on the supportive treatments.
The occurrence and development of SARS-COV-2 depend on the interaction between the virus and the individuals’ immune system-viral load, viral titer, and viability of the virus in vitro. The individuals’ immune system factors include genetics (such as HLA genes ), age, gender nutritional status,neuroendocrine-immune regulation, and physical status. These factors all contribute to whether an individual is infected with the virus, the duration and severity of the disease and the reinfection. In the early stages of the pandemic, accurate diagnosis helps control the spread of the disease. It is imperative to develop new safe, accurate, fast and simple new technologies for detecting SARS-COV-2. Of course, physicians will intentionally intervene in the two factors to make them develop into a directional beneficial to human health, which can help patients recover as soon as possible. However, it must not be considered that medical intervention can achieve a 100% curative effect.
KEY COVID-19 PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Key preventive measures remain;
1.Personal hygiene including regular hand washing with an alcohol-based sanitizers
2.Social distancing, not less than a meter especially to people with one or more of the symptoms
3.Regular home exercises, like rope skipping and short distance running as well as taking a deep breath followed by a gentle release
4.Proper cleaning of our environment
Isolating yourself followed by a call for immediate medical attention when one or more symptoms of COVID -19 develops
Best Tech Devices for College Students In 2020
Unlike other decades, we are living in the decades where technology runs the world. The education system has changed significantly due to tech trends. A college student can now use different tech devices to accomplish various tasks and improve their productivity. If you already past your college times but still want to share your knowledge, check out ghostwriting jobs.
Tech devices have made it possible for students to attend online classes. You shouldn’t be left behind; move with the masses, and embrace technology by getting tech devices below for your studies:
A Good laptop is among the vital requirements for college students. Most school activities take place on online platforms. But then, without a computer, how can you access the different courses online? The pen and paper used to be handy in the past years. However, due to technological advancements, they have been replaced by Google Docs and Microsoft Word. Above all, many students do their research on online platforms instead of the library.
As a student, when purchasing the laptop, check the features appropriately. You need a reliable laptop with adequate storage space and a good battery. There are many laptops with different features and different prices. Go for a reliable laptop yet cost-effective.
Gone are the decades when students used to walk with many books around. Get a kindle paperwhite for all your college assignments. You can read anything you want from any place. The gadget is flexible and portable, with modified lights that won’t affect the eyes. A kindle whitepaper has a long-lasting battery, and you can get the device from Amazon at $99.99
As much as you, as a student, want to attain good grades, do not forget to keep physically fit. Get a fitness tracker device like Fitbit Alta to check all your activities, sleep, and exercise patterns. Most students love Alta because it can connect to your phone through Bluetooth, enabling instant access to messages. You can get the equipment from Amazon at $99.95.
While in college, there are moments you need to stay focused even when you are in the dormitory. However, due to excess noise from other occupants, it becomes hard to concentrate. But here is a solution. With a wireless headphone, you can block such noise and distractions and focus on your work. The headphones can shut off the noise in your surroundings.
There are moments in college, you will have to capture images for research purposes, or as a student, you want to capture memorable moments while in college. You can go for a Canon EOS M6 camera that comes with a wide range of useful features required for a great capture. The camera goes at $178.00 from Amazon.
Some students find it difficult waking up early in the morning for classes. In such cases, an alarm clock becomes a handy device. You can get a specialized device like Circular lamps like Philips Wake-Up Light Alarm Clock. The gadget operates by simulating a sunrise. It has other unique features like a snoozing alarm and modifying lights. It goes for $44.95 from Amazon.
Every student deserves a comfortable and conducive environment to study effectively. Many tech devices simplify the life of college students. Consider the above gadgets and many others for smooth college life.
Vently – The Event Platform Disrupting The Event Ecosystem
Vently is one of the new boys in the event industry and they’re aiming to take events to the next level. Most times when events are organized anywhere in the world, People still sell tickets printed on paper which actually seems like the usual standard but what happens to the tickets when they get missing or something comes up and they can’t get refunds because they already bought the tickets at the outlet. Event organizers aren’t left out of this, tickets are printed and often don’t get sold, no matter how much was spent printing the tickets it’s still loss on the event organizers end.
Vently : Changing The Status Quo Of Events
Vently plans to change all of that, providing a system that protects event organizers, event attendees by connecting people and events all in one place. It’s not just an event discovery platform. Even Influencers and content creators aren’t left out of the system. Content creators are an essential part of the media space and as such they can’t be left out of the platform.
One of the most interesting things about Vently is the new features that it brings to the entire ecosystem. Sign up for early access here – https://www.vent.ly