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COVID-19 (SARS-COV-2) – All You Need To Know

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COVID-19 (SARS-COV-2) - All You Need To Know 1

COVID-19( SARS-COV-2)

  • Classification
  • Virology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical manifestations/symptoms
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Preventive Measures

CLASSIFICATION

covid-19
Novel beta coronavirus of the same subgenus as SARS-COV(Severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus) named SARS-COV-2.Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) has rapidly disseminated worldwide hence declared by World Health Organization as Pandemic

 

VIROLOGY: Class of virus
An enveloped virus with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA(Ribonucleic acid) genome.

PATHOGENESIS: How the disease starts

Coronavirus S protein has been reported as a significant determinant of virus entry into host cells. The envelope spike glycoprotein binds to its cellular receptor, ACE 2() for SARS-COV. The entry of SARS-COV into the cell was initially identified to be accomplished by direct membrane fusion between the virus and plasma membrane. It is found that a critical proteolytic cleavage event occurred at SARS-COV S-protein at position S2 mediated the membrane fusion and viral infectivity.
After the virus enters the cell, the viral RNA genome is released into the cytoplasm and translated into two polyproteins and structural proteins, after which the viral genome begins to replicate. The newly formed envelope glycoproteins are inserted into the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi and the nucleocapsid is formed by the combination of genome RNA and nucleocapsid protein.

Antigen Presentation In Corona Virus Infection

While the virus enters the cells its antigen will be presented to the antigen presentation cells (APC) which are a central part of the body’s anti-viral immunity. Antigenic peptides are presented by major histocompatibility complex(MHC), or human leukocyte antigen(HLA) in humans and then recognized by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLS). For SARS-COV and MERS-COV the presentation is mainly dependent on MHC-1 molecules, but MHC-II also contributes to its presentation.

Humoral and Cellular Immunity

Antigen presentation subsequently stimulates the body’s humoral and cellular Immunity which are mediated by virus-specific B and T cells similar to acute viral infection the antibody profile against the SARS-COV virus has a typical pattern of IgM and IgG(immunoglobulin M & G) production. IgM disappears over 12weeks, IgG plays a protective role.
Comparing to humoral responses, there are more researches on the cellular Immunity of coronavirus. The latest report shows the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood of SARS-COV-2 infected patients significantly is reduced were as evidenced by high proportions of HLA-DR(CD4 3.47%) and CD38(CD8 39.4%) double positive. Even if there is no antigen, CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells can persist for four years in the part of SARS-COV recovered individuals and can perform T cell proliferation, DTH response and production of IFN-8(inferno-8), six years after SARS-COV infection specific T cell memory responses to the SARS-COV peptide library could still be identified in 14 of 23 recovered SARS patients.

Cytokine storm in COVID-19

The report in Lancet shows ARDS( Acute respiratory distress syndrome) is the main cause of death of COVID-19 . of the 41 SARS-COV-2 infected patients admitted in the early stages of the outbreak, six died from ARDS.
ARDS is the common immuno-pathophysiological event for SARS-COV-2, SARS-COV and MERS-COV Infection.
One of the main mechanism of ARDS is the cytokine storm, the deadly uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response resulting from the release of a large amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines(INF-alpha, INF-gamma, IL-B, IL-6, IL-12, IL-18, IL-33, TNF-alpha, TGF-B, etc),(IL(interleukin), TNF(Tumor necrotic factor) and Chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, etc.)
The cytokine storm will trigger a violent attack by the immune system to the body, cause ARDS and multiple organ failure and finally lead to death in severe cases of SARS-COV-2 infection, just like what occurs in SARS-COV and MERS-COV Infection

CLINICAL MANIFESTATION/ SYMPTOMS

Clinical manifestations range from mild respiratory symptoms to severe pneumonia and a fatality rate around 2% person to person transmission is occurring both in the community and health care settings.
Clinical symptoms of COVID-19 are highly atypical, including;
Respiratory symptoms, like ARDS
Non-productive cough
Fever
Dyspnea
Viral pneumonia
Loss of taste

Diagnosis of COVID-19

Clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 is mainly based on
1.epidemiological history
2.clinical manifestation
3.some auxiliary examinations such as :
4.Nucleic acid detection
5.CT scan
6.Immune identification technology (point of care testing (POCT)) of IgM & IgG
7.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)
8.Blood culture

Nucleic Acid Detection Technology

The two commonly used nucleic acid detection technologies for SARS-COV -2 are real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and high. Throughput sequencing. The authoritative identification method for SARS- COV -2 is virus blood culture and high- throughput sequencing of the whole genome, However, the later is limitedly used due to high cost.

TREATMENT OF COVID-19

Virally targeted inhibitors like Remdesivir and adenosine analogs that can target the RNA- dependent RNA polymerase and block viral RNA synthesis has been a promising antiviral drug against a wide array of RNA viruses (including SARS & MERS-COV) Infection in culture cells
Remdesivir and Chloroquine have been demonstrated to inhibit SARS-COV-2 effectively in vitro. Hence other nucleoside analogs such as Favipiravir, Ribavirin, and Galidesivir, may be potentially clinically applicable against SARS-COV-2. Other monoclonal antibodies neutralizing SARS-COV, such as M396 CR 3014, could be an alternative for the treatment of SARS-COV-2

VACCINE

Effective SARS-COV-2 vaccines are essential for reducing disease severity, viral shedding and transmission thus helping to control coronavirus outbreak. The WHO is working with the Chinese scientists as well as other scientists around the world to launch more than 80 clinical trials on a potential treatment for SARS-COV-2. Traditional Chinese medicine seems to have some effects on the supportive treatments.

CONCLUSION

The occurrence and development of SARS-COV-2 depend on the interaction between the virus and the individuals’ immune system-viral load, viral titer, and viability of the virus in vitro. The individuals’ immune system factors include genetics (such as HLA genes ), age, gender nutritional status,neuroendocrine-immune regulation, and physical status. These factors all contribute to whether an individual is infected with the virus, the duration and severity of the disease and the reinfection. In the early stages of the pandemic, accurate diagnosis helps control the spread of the disease. It is imperative to develop new safe, accurate, fast and simple new technologies for detecting SARS-COV-2. Of course, physicians will intentionally intervene in the two factors to make them develop into a directional beneficial to human health, which can help patients recover as soon as possible. However, it must not be considered that medical intervention can achieve a 100% curative effect.

KEY COVID-19 PREVENTIVE MEASURES

Key preventive measures remain;
1.Personal hygiene including regular hand washing with an alcohol-based sanitizers
2.Social distancing, not less than a meter especially to people with one or more of the symptoms
3.Regular home exercises, like rope skipping and short distance running as well as taking a deep breath followed by a gentle release
4.Proper cleaning of our environment
Isolating yourself followed by a call for immediate medical attention when one or more symptoms of COVID -19 develops

STAY SAFE
STAY HOME

Michael Ajah is a Computer Science Student of The University of Port Harcourt and a Chelsea Fan. He loves RnB and a little mix of Trap Music. An awesome tech reviewer and analyst. Email - [email protected]

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Windows 365 – A PC In The Cloud

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Windows 365 - A PC In The Cloud 2

In a recent announcement, Windows unveiled the new cloud-based streaming concept,
which would allow users to stream a Windows desktop to any device from any location.
Windows 365 is described by Microsoft as “a new way to experience Windows 10 or
Windows 11”, and will permit users to stream applications and data to a range of devices,
including those running on Android, macOS, and Linux.
Microsoft went on to announce that users of Windows 365 would be able to operate cloud-
based PC’s running the new Windows 11 operating system.

 

Windows 365 - A PC In The Cloud 3

The move to cloud technology

With the progressive move to cloud computing technology and the attendant migration of an
increasing range of business applications to the cloud, it perhaps comes as no surprise that
a Windows operating system would move in a similar direction.
For the company IT specialist, the benefits of the decentralized Windows 365 system are
clear, in terms of simplified provisioning and the removal of hardware management issues.
The IT management sector is already well supported with specialist cloud training programs
such as Azure and google cloud certification.

The benefits of virtual machine software

From a business perspective, the prospect of a virtualized service permitting users to stream
a Windows desktop remotely opens up a range of potential commercial benefits in terms of
system administration, overall operating cost, and end-user flexibility and productivity.
There are also benefits to be found for personal users of this virtual service. At the heart of
this is how the cloud-based operating system will permit the end-user to run multiple
operating systems on one workstation.

Fundamentally, this can mean a Mac user can operate Windows on their PC and vice-versa.
This becomes advantageous when operating a range of exclusive apps which ordinarily
would not have been available on the user’s operating system. A vast range of sectors and
interest groups may find this highly desirable, including those involved in complex graphic
and software design, application development, and digital music recording and production, to
name just a few.

Windows 365 release specs

The formal unveiling of the system was made at Microsoft’s annual July conference,
although several leaks of information had occurred in the year prior to that formal
presentation, raising speculations about the nature of the system.

Based on the Azure Personal Desktop, Windows 365 was released on August 2nd 2021,
nominally as a virtualization service for Windows 10 and 11 operating systems. The running
cost is calculated monthly per user and is dependent upon system configuration.
The product is targeted at commercial users of all scales and complexities.

Summary

As a natural progression, the virtualized desktop concept is perhaps a logical step,
consistent with the move to cloud-based technology that the whole of society has shifted to.
The business implications are consistent with benefits already experienced with cloud
migration and include potential reductions in asset holding and related overheads, as well as
ease of IT management and greater flexibility and convenience for the end-user.

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Top 5 Remote Tech Jobs for Canadian Immigrants

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Top 5 Remote Tech Jobs for Canadian Immigrants 4

In accordance with the recent increase in the demand for tech experts, the work from home has become a norm mostly adopted by many employers crossing multiple corporations. What this means is that if your job requires and involves you sitting in front of a computer screen, it is most likely that that job can be done from the comfort of your home.

Canadian employers recognize the quality of skill they can attract by allowing their employees to work in an environment more comfortable and conducive to productivity than by forcing them through the lack of inspiration of the outmoded nine to five.

Most people working in Canada Tech and IT industry are immigrants from mostly Asia and Africa. Immigrating to Canada is a great deal for your Tech and IT career if you want to pursue your dreams in Canada.

The Tech and IT industry is the leading and most important field of remote work in Canada. Due to the nature of the job, it is of greater benefits to work from home for both the employer and the employee. 

The good thing now is that Canada is one of the front-runners in adopting this new employment pattern. For this purpose, we will take a look at the remote tech jobs available in Canada and the salary range for each of these jobs.

 

Tech Jobs Available in Canada for Remote Workers

1. Virtual Assistant

A virtual assistant is a professional and independent contractor who offers their clients administrative services upon an agreed price while working outside of the client’s office. Some of the administrative services you will perform as a virtual assistant may include:

  • Responding to emails and phone calls
  • Schedule meetings 
  • Booking travel and accommodations 
  • Managing contact list 
  • Making customer spreadsheets
  • Keeping online records 
  • Organizing managers’ calendars 
  • Performing market research 
  • Creating presentations, as assigned 
  • Addressing employees’ administrative queries 
  • Offering customer service as first point of contact

A broad knowledge of social media and other platforms like Excel and Word are required to be effective as a virtual assistant. The position is usually highly interactive, requiring interfacing with customers face to face and via social media. People with strong marketing backgrounds are often best suited for these positions. Starting salaries are typically between $1,000 and $1,500 a month, but as you gain more experience, you’ll begin to earn more.

2. e-Learning Designer

E-Learning Designers are tasked with the responsibility of creating virtual learning programs for students. E-learning designers are also required to decide the proper medium for specific information and deliver educational material properly. 

The job of an e-learning designer is a continuous one since they are required to find means through which they can use new technology to improve the learning experience of the students. 

E-learning designers carry out their operations from within the tech department of a school or academic institution. While skills like communication, listening, empathy, and problem solving are needed as an e-learning designer, they also have to collaborate with the instructors and subject matter experts on educational materials to be delivered

With the huge transition to online operation in nearly every sector, with no exception to the education sector, Schools across Canada are beginning to create increasingly numbers of online materials to make sure students receive the standard of education that they are paying for, and that schools across Canada remain competitive.

According to Glassdoor, the national average salary for an e-learning designer is $67,176 per year in Canada.

3. Angular Web Developer

Angular Web Developers are skilled JavaScript developers who have the knowledge of theoretic concepts of software engineering. Angular web developers are required to develop several different skills and utilize them at the right time and at the right place to develop and application. To succeed as an Angular web developer, here are essential skills you will need to possess knowledge of:

  • Node Package Manager (npm)
  • Angular CLI (Command Line Interface)
  • HTML and CSS
  • Angular
  • TypeScript
  • RxJS
  • Git
  • Empathy

Possession of Good English skills are also needed as you will need to explain technical solutions to non-developers. Entry level staff in Canada earn at around $7,080 per month, while experienced workers earn at least $12,000 on average per month.

4. Project Manager

Project managers are tasked with the responsibility of the planning, executing, monitoring, controlling and closing out any project. To own a career in Project management in Canada, individuals are required to possess the following:

  • A bachelor’s degree in management or business.
  • Certification in project management.
  • A master’s degree in project management or business management.
  • A certified associate qualification in project management.
  • Relevant work experience in the field for a significant period of time.

A lot of responsibility is associated with managing IT and tech projects remotely. In instances such as this, project managers prefer being in an office environment as they are able to communicate a lot easier with staff.  Nevertheless, as more skilled workers are employed, the skill to effectively manage projects online has become an in-demand one. The average salary earned by a project manager on a yearly basis in Canada is $81,652 and $41.87 on hourly basis. Entry level positions earn at least $62,490 yearly while top experienced project managers earn up to $122,400 yearly.

5. UI/UX Graphic Designer

UI/UX is the short form for User Interface/User Experience. UI/UX designers are tasked with the responsibility of developing products for the sole aim of user satisfaction. Their main objective is to looks for new ways to enhance the product experience by making the product faster, easier to use, or more user-friendly. 

UI and graphic design for web, mobile and marketing are in great demands in Canada with the most being concentrated in Toronto and Vancouver. UI/UX designers are able to secure positions is several industries like: entertainment, education, banking, fashion, eateries, etc.

Graphic designers are in limited availability and thus earn very good salaries. The average income per hour is around $40 and $6,500 per month.

Benefits of Remote Work

In all ramifications, working remotely allows for flexibility and independence for employees. Working from home has been of greater benefit to both the employer and the employee; the employee is able to enjoy the balanced work-life provided by working from home since it bridges the blurred lines between work and home life which is a downside to these technological advances. So, maintaining a healthy work-life is the priority of many employees. The ability to balance these two worlds has become significant to feeling happier for the employees.

While most employees are most productive under the absence of the close supervision of their employers, working from home and remotely grants them this freedom they so desire.

Working remotely also helps in saving time that would have been spent on long transportation to the place of work thereby relieving the employee of the stress of commute.

Employees are also able to save up the money that would have been used for transportation and other expenses at workplace.

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