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Meet The Owners Of MTN, ETISALAT, GLO And AIRTEL

Benjamin Vincent

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1. MTN – The Present CEO of MTN is

Sifiso Dabengwa.
Meet The Owners Of MTN, ETISALAT, GLO And AIRTEL 1

The company was founded in 1994, MTN is a
South-African company with their headquarters at
Johannesburg

2. Airtel – The CEO of Airtel is

Gopal Vittal
Meet The Owners Of MTN, ETISALAT, GLO And AIRTEL 2

The company was founded on July 1995. Though the founder is

Sunil Bharti Mittal

Meet The Owners Of MTN, ETISALAT, GLO And AIRTEL 3

hence the name of the company you hear as Bharti AIRTEL.
The Headquarters Are In New-Delhi, India

Airtel Nigeria’s former
owners are as follows Econet, V-Mobile, Celtel, Zain
and now Airtel.

3. Globacom – The CEO of Glo is

Chief Mike Adenuga

Meet The Owners Of MTN, ETISALAT, GLO And AIRTEL 4

Glo is an indigenous Nigerian company founded on the 29th
of August 2003 with headquarters in Lagos, Nigeria.

4. Etisalat –CEO of Etisalat Is

Ahmed Abulkarim Mohd Julfar.

Meet The Owners Of MTN, ETISALAT, GLO And AIRTEL 5
Etisalat was founded in 1976 in the United Arab Emirate and with the
headquarters in Abu-DhabiFollow Us On Twitter @ngnewsreporters and on Facebook.com/nigeriannewsreporters. . To Drop A Comment Click Visit Website

Computer science student at the University of Port Harcourt ; He's a Music Prodigy. Producer, Blogger, Software Geek and Phone Freak. Have questions? Email - [email protected]

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Apple may reportedly discontinue the iPhone XR and iPhone 11 Pro Series at launch of iPhone 12

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Apple may reportedly discontinue the iPhone XR and iPhone 11 Pro Series at launch of iPhone 12 12

Apple is all set to announce its next series of iPhone models in October, and while there’s a lot of excitement for the new iPhone 12 series which usually goes with some wallet-sapping experience, there’s also some bad news about the existing models.

According to a twitter account named – iAppleTimes, the iOS gatekeeper will presumably be discontinuing the iPhone XR and the iPhone 11 Pro models once the new iPhones are announced.

The tweet just mentions that Apple will discontinue the current generation iPhones but leaves out a number of important details which is literally weird. But, for starters, this is something Apple has done in the past as well.

Imperatively, what this means is that if Apple does discontinue the iPhone XR and iPhone 11 Pro models, it would just mean the end of their manufacturing. The phones would still continue to be sold worldwide based on the inventory that’s already out and, Apple would continue to honour the warranty on these devices and even support out-of-warranty claims for a few more years.

The report by iAppleTimes is best taken with a grain of salt as the twitter account does not have a track record of getting things right with respect to Apple’s launches. Also, the iPhone 11 Pro series has been fairly successful for Apple if not highly driving their sales especially in a pandemic hit year so discontinuing the model right away would not make any sense.

What is highly expected at the announcement of the iPhone 12 series is merely a price drop for the iPhone 11-series, something that Apple has done every year at the launch of a newer iPhone.

This year, Apple is rumoured to launch four iPhone models as part of the 12-series, two models carrying the “Pro” moniker and two being non-Pro.

Earlier, there have been reports by Ming-Chi Kuo and others that the iPhone 12 would face some delays due to the COVID-19 situation, which had brought Qualcomm and the testing of the 5G modem to a halt. This caused a cascading effect which has led to the iPhone event being delayed to October.

However, Apple is still expected to host an event in September, where rumours suggest, the company would announce the new Apple Watch Series 6 alongside a new iPad.

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COVID-19 (SARS-COV-2) – All You Need To Know

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COVID-19 (SARS-COV-2) - All You Need To Know 13

COVID-19( SARS-COV-2)

  • Classification
  • Virology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical manifestations/symptoms
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Preventive Measures

CLASSIFICATION

covid-19
Novel beta coronavirus of the same subgenus as SARS-COV(Severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus) named SARS-COV-2.Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) has rapidly disseminated worldwide hence declared by World Health Organization as Pandemic

 

VIROLOGY: Class of virus
An enveloped virus with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA(Ribonucleic acid) genome.

PATHOGENESIS: How the disease starts

Coronavirus S protein has been reported as a significant determinant of virus entry into host cells. The envelope spike glycoprotein binds to its cellular receptor, ACE 2() for SARS-COV. The entry of SARS-COV into the cell was initially identified to be accomplished by direct membrane fusion between the virus and plasma membrane. It is found that a critical proteolytic cleavage event occurred at SARS-COV S-protein at position S2 mediated the membrane fusion and viral infectivity.
After the virus enters the cell, the viral RNA genome is released into the cytoplasm and translated into two polyproteins and structural proteins, after which the viral genome begins to replicate. The newly formed envelope glycoproteins are inserted into the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi and the nucleocapsid is formed by the combination of genome RNA and nucleocapsid protein.

Antigen Presentation In Corona Virus Infection

While the virus enters the cells its antigen will be presented to the antigen presentation cells (APC) which are a central part of the body’s anti-viral immunity. Antigenic peptides are presented by major histocompatibility complex(MHC), or human leukocyte antigen(HLA) in humans and then recognized by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLS). For SARS-COV and MERS-COV the presentation is mainly dependent on MHC-1 molecules, but MHC-II also contributes to its presentation.

Humoral and Cellular Immunity

Antigen presentation subsequently stimulates the body’s humoral and cellular Immunity which are mediated by virus-specific B and T cells similar to acute viral infection the antibody profile against the SARS-COV virus has a typical pattern of IgM and IgG(immunoglobulin M & G) production. IgM disappears over 12weeks, IgG plays a protective role.
Comparing to humoral responses, there are more researches on the cellular Immunity of coronavirus. The latest report shows the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood of SARS-COV-2 infected patients significantly is reduced were as evidenced by high proportions of HLA-DR(CD4 3.47%) and CD38(CD8 39.4%) double positive. Even if there is no antigen, CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells can persist for four years in the part of SARS-COV recovered individuals and can perform T cell proliferation, DTH response and production of IFN-8(inferno-8), six years after SARS-COV infection specific T cell memory responses to the SARS-COV peptide library could still be identified in 14 of 23 recovered SARS patients.

Cytokine storm in COVID-19

The report in Lancet shows ARDS( Acute respiratory distress syndrome) is the main cause of death of COVID-19 . of the 41 SARS-COV-2 infected patients admitted in the early stages of the outbreak, six died from ARDS.
ARDS is the common immuno-pathophysiological event for SARS-COV-2, SARS-COV and MERS-COV Infection.
One of the main mechanism of ARDS is the cytokine storm, the deadly uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response resulting from the release of a large amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines(INF-alpha, INF-gamma, IL-B, IL-6, IL-12, IL-18, IL-33, TNF-alpha, TGF-B, etc),(IL(interleukin), TNF(Tumor necrotic factor) and Chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, etc.)
The cytokine storm will trigger a violent attack by the immune system to the body, cause ARDS and multiple organ failure and finally lead to death in severe cases of SARS-COV-2 infection, just like what occurs in SARS-COV and MERS-COV Infection

CLINICAL MANIFESTATION/ SYMPTOMS

Clinical manifestations range from mild respiratory symptoms to severe pneumonia and a fatality rate around 2% person to person transmission is occurring both in the community and health care settings.
Clinical symptoms of COVID-19 are highly atypical, including;
Respiratory symptoms, like ARDS
Non-productive cough
Fever
Dyspnea
Viral pneumonia
Loss of taste

Diagnosis of COVID-19

Clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 is mainly based on
1.epidemiological history
2.clinical manifestation
3.some auxiliary examinations such as :
4.Nucleic acid detection
5.CT scan
6.Immune identification technology (point of care testing (POCT)) of IgM & IgG
7.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)
8.Blood culture

Nucleic Acid Detection Technology

The two commonly used nucleic acid detection technologies for SARS-COV -2 are real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and high. Throughput sequencing. The authoritative identification method for SARS- COV -2 is virus blood culture and high- throughput sequencing of the whole genome, However, the later is limitedly used due to high cost.

TREATMENT OF COVID-19

Virally targeted inhibitors like Remdesivir and adenosine analogs that can target the RNA- dependent RNA polymerase and block viral RNA synthesis has been a promising antiviral drug against a wide array of RNA viruses (including SARS & MERS-COV) Infection in culture cells
Remdesivir and Chloroquine have been demonstrated to inhibit SARS-COV-2 effectively in vitro. Hence other nucleoside analogs such as Favipiravir, Ribavirin, and Galidesivir, may be potentially clinically applicable against SARS-COV-2. Other monoclonal antibodies neutralizing SARS-COV, such as M396 CR 3014, could be an alternative for the treatment of SARS-COV-2

VACCINE

Effective SARS-COV-2 vaccines are essential for reducing disease severity, viral shedding and transmission thus helping to control coronavirus outbreak. The WHO is working with the Chinese scientists as well as other scientists around the world to launch more than 80 clinical trials on a potential treatment for SARS-COV-2. Traditional Chinese medicine seems to have some effects on the supportive treatments.

CONCLUSION

The occurrence and development of SARS-COV-2 depend on the interaction between the virus and the individuals’ immune system-viral load, viral titer, and viability of the virus in vitro. The individuals’ immune system factors include genetics (such as HLA genes ), age, gender nutritional status,neuroendocrine-immune regulation, and physical status. These factors all contribute to whether an individual is infected with the virus, the duration and severity of the disease and the reinfection. In the early stages of the pandemic, accurate diagnosis helps control the spread of the disease. It is imperative to develop new safe, accurate, fast and simple new technologies for detecting SARS-COV-2. Of course, physicians will intentionally intervene in the two factors to make them develop into a directional beneficial to human health, which can help patients recover as soon as possible. However, it must not be considered that medical intervention can achieve a 100% curative effect.

KEY COVID-19 PREVENTIVE MEASURES

Key preventive measures remain;
1.Personal hygiene including regular hand washing with an alcohol-based sanitizers
2.Social distancing, not less than a meter especially to people with one or more of the symptoms
3.Regular home exercises, like rope skipping and short distance running as well as taking a deep breath followed by a gentle release
4.Proper cleaning of our environment
Isolating yourself followed by a call for immediate medical attention when one or more symptoms of COVID -19 develops

STAY SAFE
STAY HOME

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